Lab Test

Tumor Type-Specific and Large Pan-Cancer Panels by Next Generation Sequencing

Lung, Myeloma, Myeloid Neoplasms, GIST, Sarcoma, Melanoma, Colorectal and Neuro Panels Tumor Mutation Panels by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using the Illumina TruSight Oncology 500 assay (TSO500). Sub-panels available: lung, myeloma, myeloid neoplasms, GIST, sarcoma, melanoma, colorectal, and neuro-oncologic

Test Codes

Panel Name   Soft code-5 character
Lung Cancer NGS Panel MLUNG
Melanoma NGS Panel  MMEL
Colorectal Cancer NGS Panel MCRC
Sarcoma NGS Panel MSARC
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor NGS Panel MGIST
Neuro NGS Panel MNEUR
Myeloma NGS Panel  MMYLM
Myeloid neoplasms NGS Panel  MMYLD
Comprehensive Cancer NGS Panel  M500G

Department

Molecular Pathology

Specimen Collection Criteria

Bone Marrow:

  • 1.0 mL bone marrow aspirate in a Lavender-top EDTA tube. (Minimum: 0.5 mL)      
  • Other specimen types by approval of Medical Director.

Solid Tissues:

  • Paraffin-embedded tissue.
    • A paraffin block must be submitted. Submit 10% formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded block with corresponding H&E slide.
  • Unstained sections of 5-µm thickness mounted on glass slides can also be used (minimum 5 sections for large tissue and 10 sections for small tissue such as core biopsy). Tissue should be well fixed and well processed. Average tissue size 5.0 mm2.
  • Once extracted, DNA and RNA will be assessed for quality. If it is deemed unacceptable, testing will be cancelled with client notification.  
  • All specimens must be accompanied by a completed requisition and must contain the patient name, date of birth, collection date, ordering physician, and source of specimen.  

Physician Office/Draw Specimen Preparation

Do not freeze specimens. Maintain specimens at room temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F) and transport fresh samples to the Laboratory within 4-6 hours of collection. 

Preparation for Courier Transport

Transport: All bone marrow, tissue or slides, at room temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F).

Rejection Criteria

  • Specimens collected in heparin (Green-top), clot tubes (Red-top) ACD anti-coagulant tubes or SST tubes.
  • Tissue decalcified with agents other than Mol Decal (EDTA)  
  • Fixatives other than 10% neutral buffered formalin.  
  • Improper labeling or inadequate information.   
  • Less than 12.5% tumor cellularity
  • Poor quality and/or quantity of extracted DNA/RNA. 
  • Frozen specimens.
  • Unlabeled tubes or samples.
Testing will be cancelled on specimens meeting the above criteria with client notification. Under certain circumstances (i.e., lack of alternative specimens), testing may proceed with approval from the medical director or designee. 

Inpatient Specimen Preparation

Specimens at Royal Oak may be sent to the Surgical Pathology tube station #201. In-house specimens are also picked up by a Surgical Pathology assistant every hour on the hour. 

In-Lab Processing

Maintain specimen refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F) prior to testing.  Unstained sections of 5-µm thickness are cut from selected tissue blocks. The number of sections cut and the need for macro-dissection are determined by the pathologist, based upon the amount of available tissue and the tumor cellularity. 

Storage

Bone Marrow Specimen Stability for Testing:

Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 6 hours
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 48 hours
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): Unacceptable

Solid Tissue Specimen Stability for Testing:

Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): Indefinitely
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): Unacceptable
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): Unacceptable

Specimen Storage in Department Prior to Disposal:

Bone Marrow: Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 7 days
Solid Tissue: Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): Returned to originating lab upon completion of testing.

Specimen Storage (DNA libraries post testing):

Frozen (-25 to -15°C): 2 months

Laboratory

Royal Oak Anatomic Pathology – Molecular Pathology Laboratory

Performed

Once or twice per week, dependent upon test volume. Results available in 10-15 days.

Reference Range

No variants detected or only likely benign variants detected.

Test Methodology

Tissue section slides are reviewed by a pathologist and relevant tumor is selected for analysis. RNA, DNA or both are isolated from the sample and quantified. Recovered DNA/RNA extracts are prepared for sequencing with the Illumina TruSight® Oncology 500 DNA Kit and Illumina TruSight® Tumor 170 RNA Kit and sequenced using paired-end sequencing on the Illumina NextSeq 500/550 instrument with the Illumina NextSeq™ 500/550 High Output Reagent V2 300 Cycle sequencing kit. Alignment and variant calling of both RNA and DNA libraries occurs using the Illumina TruSight Oncology 500 v2.0 pipeline. The variant results are annotated and compiled by PierianDx Clinical Genomics Workspace (CGW) to generate a clinical report.  A personalized interpretive report is generated that lists the variants detected in each gene, classified based on a standardized classification scheme for somatic variants, and provides detailed interpretative comments.

Test Limitations:

  • Test performance is optimal with specimens containing at least 12.5% tumor cells and nucleic acid concentrations of at least 3.3 ng/ul. Values below these thresholds will result in suboptimal test performance.
  • The content of this test is not optimized for tumor types other than those listed in the gene subpanels.  
  • This test is designed to detect somatic variants only. The status of potential germline variants cannot be verified because parallel testing is not performed on paired normal tissues. Additional testing is necessary for any potential hereditary risk.  
  • Variants occurring in the listed genes but outside of the targeted regions will not be detected by this assay. See the links below for the list of genomic regions covered by each panel.
  • Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) with allele fraction of at least 3% and depth of coverage at least 100X are detected with 99.6% sensitivity and 98.8% positive predictive value (PPV)
  • Insertion-deletion variants (indels) with allele fraction of at least 3% and depth of coverage at least 100X are detected with 99.4% sensitivity and 97.5% PPV
  • Copy number variants (CNVs) with 5 or greater copies are detected with 100% sensitivity and 100% PPV
  • RNA fusions are detected with 94.04% sensitivity and 95.77% PPV with a high confidence filter and additional minimum requirements of either 20 unique split reads or at least 3 unique split reads with at least 28 unique paired reads supporting the fusion event.
  • Special care should be taken when reviewing indels in a homopolymer region.
  • Clinical utility of the TSO500 assay for fusion calling is limited for clinically relevant fusions in hematological disorders, the following fusions are consistently not detected due to limitations of the variant calling analysis:

    1. FIP1L1-PDGFRA.
    2. MYST3-CREBBP
    3. RUNX1-RUNX1T1
    4. PML-RARA
    5. BCR-ABL (e1a2)
  • Rare false positives and negatives may occur due to errors in sequencing chemistry. Quality assurance criteria are established to minimize such occurrences.  
  • Variants which are present in the data but with allele frequency/copy number/supporting reads below the established analytical sensitivity will not be reported unless confirmed by orthogonal testing, due to the increased risk of false positive results with such findings.
  • SNVs and indels with allele fraction below the established analytical sensitivity are not reproducibly detected by this assay. Large indels (greater than 25 bp) will not be detected by this assay.
  • Due to the nature of this assay, the majority of variants reported will be of uncertain clinical significance and novel (not previously identified by the TSO 500 assay in this lab). Orthogonal confirmatory testing is reserved for novel variants with well-defined clinical significance (i.e. tier I variants). Confirmatory testing of other variants (tier II/III) that may affect clinical decision making is left to the discretion of the treating physician and subject to the availability of suitable confirmatory methods.
  • Variants with supporting evidence consisting only of small case series, case reports, or preclinical data will be reported as variants of uncertain significance with no further interpretative comments.
  • Germline variants that are frequent in the general population (>1% frequency in population databases) and considered benign or likely benign (i.e. unrelated to cancer) may be identified but will not be reported. 
  • The following genes and genomic regions consistently show poor performance in this assay and will not reliably detect variants: List of Genes (Poor Performers Table).
  • Variant calls in the HLA-A, KMT2B, KMT2C, and KMT2D genes are filtered out due to potential mis-mapping, using Illumina’s analysis pipeline, as a result of sequence homology with other genomic regions.
  • Variant interpretations are based upon data from public databases available at the time of case sign out and do not reflect new information that becomes available after that date. 
  • The reported values for tumor mutational burden (TMB) are not further classified because the clinical utility of TMB for this assay has not been established.
  • The reported values for microsatellite instability (MSI) are not further classified because comparative studies with conventional MSI assays have not been performed.
  • Decisions regarding patient care must be based upon independent judgment of the treating physician, taking into consideration all applicable information about the patient’s condition, including but not limited to patient and family history, physical examination, information from other diagnostic tests, and patient preferences, in accordance with the applicable standard of care.
  • Drug associations provided in this report do not guarantee that any particular agent will be effective in the treatment of a specific patient.

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, tumor sampling, and other laboratory data. If results obtained do not match other clinical or laboratory findings, please contact the laboratory director.

Clinical Utility

This test is designed to detect multiple classes of DNA and RNA mutations including single-nucleotide variants (SNV), multi-nucleotide variants ≤ 3 (MNV), small insertions (1-18 bp)/deletions (1-24 bp) (indels), splice variants (in MET and EGFR), fusions and copy number variants (CNV). The test is also capable of quantitative assessment of both microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumor mutational burden (TMB). The pan-cancer biomarkers NTRK1/NTRK2/NTRK3 gene fusions are also included with all solid tumor panels

The test can be ordered as either the comprehensive 523 gene analysis, or one of eight tumor type-specific gene panels that analyze only the mostly clinically relevant genes for that tumor type, as shown below.

  1. Lung Cancer NGS Panel (26 genes):

    AKT1, ALK, BRAF, DDR2, EGFR, ERBB2, FGFR1, FGFR3, HRAS, KRAS, MAP2K1, MET, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NRAS, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, PIK3CA, PMS2, PTEN, RET, ROS, SMAD4, TP53
    Regions Sequenced in Lung Cancer NGS Panel (Lung Table)

  2. Myeloma NGS Panel (27 genes):
    AKT2, AKT3, ATM, BIRC3, BRAF, CCND1, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CXCR4, EGFR, FGFR3, IDH1, IDH2, IRF4, IKZF1, JAK2, KDM6A, KRAS, MYC, MYD88, NRAS, PIK3CA, PIM1, RB1, STAT3, TP53
    Regions Sequenced in Myeloma NGS Panel (Myeloma Table)

  3. Myeloid Neoplasms NGS Panel (42 genes):

    ABL1, ABL2, ASXL1, BCR, BCOR, BRAF, CALR, CBL, CEBPA, CSF3R, DNMT3A, ETV6, EZH2, FLT3, GATA1, GATA2, GNAS, HRAS, IDH1, IDH2, JAK2, KIT, KRAS, MLL, MYD88, MPL, NPM1, NRAS, PHF6, PTEN, PTPN11, RAD21, RUNX1, SETBP1, SF3B1, SRSF2, SMC3, STAG2, TET2, TP53, WT1, ZRSR2
    Regions Sequenced in Myeloid Neoplasms NGS Panel (Myeloid Neoplasms Table)

  4. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor NGS Panel (8 genes):

    KIT, PDGFRA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3
    Regions Sequenced in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor NGS Panel (GIST Table)

  5. Sarcoma NGS Panel (28 genes):

    ALK, APC, BRAF, CDK4, CTNNB1, ETV6, EWSR1, FOXO1, GLI1, IDH1, IDH2, KIT, MDM2, MYOD1, NAB2, NF1, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, PAX3, PAX7, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, SDHB, SDHC, SMARCB1, TFE3, WT1
    Regions Sequenced in Sarcoma NGS Panel (Sarcoma Table)

  6. Melanoma NGS Panel (15 genes):

    BRAF, CTNNB1, GNA11, GNAQ, KIT, MAP2K1, NF1, NRAS, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53
    Regions Sequencing in Melanoma NGS Panel (Melanoma Table)

  7. Colorectal Cancer NGS Panel (17 genes):

    AKT1, BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, MET, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NRAS, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, PIK3CA, PMS2, PTEN, SMAD4, TP53
    Regions Sequenced in Colorectal Cancer NGS Panel (Colorectal Table)

  8. Neuro-oncologic NGS Panel (12 genes):

    ATRX, BRAF, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, EGFR, HIST3H3, IDH1, IDH2, MYC, MYCN, MYCL1
    Regions Sequenced in Neuro-oncologic NGS Panel (Neuro-oncologic Table)

  9. Comprehensive Cancer NGS Panel (523 genes):
    Please review last page for comprehensive list
    Regions Sequenced in Comprehensive Cancer NGS Panel (Comprehensive Table)

CPT Codes

Panel Name CPT Codes
Lung Cancer NGS Panel 81445
Melanoma NGS Panel 81445
Colorectal Cancer NGS Panel 81445
Sarcoma NGS Panel 81445
Gastrointestinal Cancer NGS Panel 81445
Neuro NGS Panel 81445
Myeloma NGS Panel 81450
Myeloid neoplasms NGS Panel 81450
500 CANCER GENE PANEL NGS 81455

Contacts

Last Updated

1/20/2023

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