Lab Test

Anti Parietal Antibody

APCA, Anti-Parietal Cell Antibody, Anti Parietal Cell Antibody

Test Codes

EPIC: LAB5746, SOFT: APA

Specimen Collection Criteria

Collect: One Gold-top SST tube. (Minimum Whole Blood: 2.0 mL)

Physician Office/Draw Specimen Preparation

Let specimen clot 30-60 minutes then immediately centrifuge to separate serum from cells. Refrigerate (2-8°C or 36-46°F) the centrifuged collection tube within two hours of collection. (Minimum Serum: 0.5 mL)

Preparation for Courier Transport

Transport: Centrifuged collection tube, refrigerated (2-8 °C or 36-46 °F). (Minimum Serum: 0.5 mL)

Rejection Criteria

Plasma specimens.

Severely lipemic, icteric or hemolyzed specimens.

In-Lab Processing

Let specimen clot 30-60 minutes then immediately centrifuge to separate serum from cells. Room temperature is acceptable for a maximum of two hours. (Minimum Serum: 0.5 mL)

Storage

Specimen Stability for Testing:

Centrifuged SST Tubes and Microtainers® with Separator Gels
Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 2 hours
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 72 hours
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): Unacceptable

Red-top Tubes and Microtainers® without Separator Gels
Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 2 hours
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): Unacceptable
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): Unacceptable

Serum Specimens (Pour-Overs)
Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 2 hours
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 72 hours
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): 3 months

Specimen Storage in Department Prior to Disposal:

Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 7 days

Laboratory

Royal Oak Special Chemistry Laboratory

Performed

Monday, Wednesday, Friday.
Results available within 2 business days.

Reference Range

Less than 1:20.

Test Methodology

Indirect Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA).

Interpretation

  • Anti-Parietal Cell antibody (APCA) occurs in 90% of patients with pernicious anemia. Other disorders which may have APCA include gastric ulcer, atrophic gastritis, thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus and iron deficiency anemia. APCA occurs in less than 2% of the normal population under 20 years; however, the incidence of APCA increases in women over the age of 40 and may be present in up to 16% of the normal population over 60 years of age.
  • Most patients with pernicious anemia have parietal cell antibodies. However, the fact that such antibodies are found with increased frequency in unaffected family members, as well as in patients with other autoimmune diseases, suggest these antibodies do not cause disease by themselves. This assay is for use as a diagnostic aid only.
  • Low titer positive results may occur in healthy individuals. The results of this assay must be interpreted in regard to the patient's total clinical presentation.

Clinical Utility

The Anti-Parietal Cell antibody (APCA) assay along with other clinical and laboratory data helps to distinguish autoimmune pernicious anemia from other megaloblastic anemias.

CPT Codes

86256
LOINC: 5271-2

Contacts

Last Updated

1/4/2023

Microtainer® and Vacutainer® are registered trademarks of Becton, Dickinson and Company.
UroVysion® is a registered trademark of Abbott Laboratories. ThinPrep® is a registered trademark of Hologic, Incorporated.