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Beaumont Laboratory

Culture, Ureaplasma

Mycoplasma hominis Culture, Ureaplasma Culture, Antrim #41066, SOFT: CXUU, EPIC: LAB5506

Instructions

  • This culture is for genital and/or urinary specimens ONLY.
  • Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma are highly fastidious in their requirements for growth. Specimens must be kept moist and must be sent immediately to the Microbiology Laboratory.

Specimen Collection Criteria

Collect: One of the following specimen types:

  1. Fluid (amniotic, semen, prostatic secretions, and urine).
    • Collect in a sterile collection container.
    • Collect urine specimen from women by urethral catheterization. A first-void urine specimen should be collected from men.
    • NOTE: Urethral swabs from men and vaginal or cervical swabs from women are preferred over urine specimens for detection of genital mycoplasmas.
  2. Swab specimens in UTM or UVT (urethra, vagina, cervix).
    • Flocked, Dacron and polyester swabs are acceptable.
    • Collect by swabbing back and forth over the mucosa or surface to maximize recovery of cells.
    • Place and swirl swab into UTM (Universal Transport Medium) or UVT (Universal Viral Transport). Specimens submitted in MycoTrans are also acceptable.
    • NOTE: Do not use cotton swabs, vaginal lubricants or antiseptics prior to collection. They are inhibitory to these microorganisms.
  3. Tissue.
    • Collect in a sterile container with sufficient UTM or UVT to prevent drying.

Physician Office/Drawsite Specimen Preparation

Arrange for transport to the Laboratory prior to specimen collection. Maintain specimens refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F) prior to transport.

Preparation for Courier Transport

Transport: All specimen types in an appropriate container, refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F).

Rejection Criteria

  • Specimens in leaking containers.
  • Specimens submitted in expired transport media.
  • Specimens received greater than 24 hours after collection.
  • Tissues or swab specimens not received in transport media.

Storage

Specimen Stability for Testing:

Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): Unacceptable
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 12 hours (preferred), 24 hours (maximum)
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): Unacceptable

Specimen Storage in Department Prior to Disposal:

Room Temperature (20-26°C or 68-78.8°F): 7 days (Swabs)
Refrigerated (2-8°C or 36-46°F): 7 days (Fluids)
Frozen (-20°C/-4°F or below): 30 days (Tissues)

Laboratory

Grosse Pointe sent to Royal Oak Microbiology Laboratory for testing.
Royal Oak Microbiology Laboratory.
Troy sent to Royal Oak Microbiology Laboratory for testing.

Performed

Sunday - Saturday.
Final negative results available in 8 days.

Reference Range

No Ureaplasma recovered.
No Mycoplasma hominis recovered.

Test Methodology

Culture.

Interpretation

  • Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. can be cultured on urea-containing agar. Isolation of Ureaplasma spp. in any quantity from normally sterile body fluids or tissues is significantly associated with disease. Recovery of Ureaplasma spp. from the lower genital tract is more problematic. This organism may be the etiologic agent in nongonococcal urethritis in males and urethral syndrome in females.
  • Isolation of M. hominis in any quantity from normally sterile body fluids or tissue is significantly associated with disease. The presence of M. hominis in nonsterile body sites may be significant if the organism is isolated in large quantities and is associated with compatible clinical illness.

Clinical Utility

This assay aids in the diagnosis of diseases by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. This test will not detect M. genitalium.

Clinical Disease

  • The most common syndrome associated with Ureaplasma urealyticum in men is nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). The etiology of NGU remains uncertain but U. urealyticum has been more frequently isolated from patients with NGU than from appropriate controls in several well-designed studies. Without treatment, the disease continues for 1 to 3 months.
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum has been isolated from nasopharyngeal secretions and endotracheal aspirates of infants 3 months or younger with pneumonia. It may be a cause of lower respiratory tract disease in neonates and young infants. In women, U. urealyticum has been isolated in pure culture from Bartholin gland abscesses, tubo-ovarian and pelvic abscesses, and salpingitis (1).
  • M. hominis is associated with both genitourinary and nongenital infections. These include: cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease, urinary tract infections, chorioammnionitis, postpartum fever and bacteremia as well as arthritis, wound infections, endocarditis and respiratory tract infections. In neonates, it can cause meningoencephalitis, bacteremia and abscesses. Specimens to be tested for M. hominis are those normally obtained for cultures from the infected sites. M. hominis may be part of the normal genital flora. 

Epidemiology

The primary reservoir of the human U. urealyticum is the genital tract of sexually active adults. Colonization is found in approximately one half of sexually active adults, can be prolonged, but is rare in prepubertal children and in those not sexually active. Mycoplasma hominis can be isolated from a variety body fluids from the genital tract (1). Newborns who are colonized are presumed to have been exposed during passage through the birth canal. Neonatal colonization is transient and decreases with age.

Incubation Period

After sexual transmission the incubation period is 10-20 days (1).

Transmission

Transmission during delivery is likely from an asymptomatic infected mother to her newborn. U. urealyticum may colonize the throat, eyes, umbilicus, and perineum of newborns. U. urealyticum has been isolated from the lower airways and lung biopsies of preterm infants with pneumonia and chronic lung disease (1). M. hominis can be aquired by neonates during delivery.

Reference

  1. Waites, K.B., C.M. Bebear, J.A. Robertson, D.F. Talkington and G.E. Kenny, 2001. Cumitech 34. Laboratory diagnosis of mycoplasmal infections. Coordinating ed., F.S. Nolte. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
  2. Waites, K.B., B.Katz, R.L.Schelonka. 2005. Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas as neonatal pathogens. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18: 757-89.

CPT Code

87109.

Test Codes

Antrim #41066, SOFT: CXUU, EPIC: LAB5506

Last Updated

05/25/2017

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This directory currently reflects information only for specimens collected and/or processed at the Farmington Hills, Grosse Pointe, Royal Oak, and Troy campuses.